College Letters

Seal of the "College of the Academy of the New Church"

College Letter No. XVII
September 1st, 1895

Index of College Letters


For Private use of Members of the Academy of the New Church. Please read carefully, and return immediately, when read, to the undersigned.

No. XVII, __ Philadelphia, September 1st, 1895=125.

DEAR FRIEND:—Again I have the pleasure of communicating matters of interest to the Academy, the especial points of interest being the formation of another Particular Church of the Academy, and this time in the Philadelphia Centre; and also the Chancellor's informal announcement (on June 19th) of a successful outcome to the effort to harmonize the effective administration of civil affairs in the Academy with the formal requirements of the civil law—or, in other words, the effort to re-organize the Corporation of the Academy. It is presumably unnecessary to urge the point that individual expressions of thought, in connection with the subject-matter of these letters, are always cordially invited and duly appreciated; nor to dwell upon the recognized use of such interchange of ideas and sentiments.


ON the evening of February 21st, 1895=125, the members of the Academy in Philadelphia met at the call of Chancellor Benade to consider the organization of a Particular Church of the Academy in this city. After the opening worship, the Chancellor, in a brief address, presented the proposition to organize a Particular Church of the Academy in Philadelphia. He alluded to the frequent criticism made on the work of the Church of the Academy here—that it devotes all its time to the children and little to the parents. We are now in the way of making changes in our order, he said, and we hope that the work will go on and progress. It belongs to Divine order to progress, and this involves making changes from time to time. The Chancellor then introduced Vice-Chancellor Pendleton for the further presentation of the subject.

Vice-Chancellor Pendleton spoke of the Church as having entered upon a new state and new life, as is evident to all who have at all observed the course of things. For the full ultimation of this new life a new worship is necessary, and this involves a new relation between pastor and people,—a fuller and more rational recognition of the mutual relations than has obtained heretofore.

In a Celestial Church the development of home-life is to be the basis; and this involves more attention to the development of home-life and home-training. This is necessary for the proper support of the educational use, which is the central use of the Church of the Academy. Thus far we have not had a Church in this centre, but a congregation, in which the members take no more part than that of attendance and contribution. The work has been an adjunct of the school, and has been dependent on the school. It is now thought wise for this congregation to come out of the state of dependence and Vice-Chancellor, but he has not been able to give it the particular attention desirable and needful in the life of a completely organized Church. The membership of a congregation is not that of a Church. Organization into one body will give unity and strength.

There have been complaints, well grounded, that adults have not received the attention they ought. A change in this respect is to take place; and the preparation of adults will assume its proper importance. The school prepares children and the young for the Church. The Church should prepare adults for heaven. The life of adults is a more internal life than that of children, who are not capable of receiving instruction as adults are. It has been given the Academy as a use to lead adults to heaven by good life, and, to that end, to develop a more interior understanding of the Doctrines,—to lead them to see the LORD in them.

The Chancellor then spoke again, saying, that as every general is composed of particulars the Church of the Academy will have its particular Churches, as the General Church of the Advent already has its particular Churches. He then asked the members present: "Are you prepared to favor the appointment of a Particular Church of the Academy, here?" and invited a free expression of views and desires. Being asked what constitutes a Particular Church, the Chancellor said that it involves organization of members in a locality into a particular form, under the ministrations of a Pastor chosen in order that he may devote himself to the particular duties of the pastoral office. The Pastor will especially see to the development of the minds of members as to the Conjugial which constitutes the mind of the Church. Having established the Church in general form we cannot look for anything else but establishment of Particular Churches.

In response to further interrogation, he said that membership in a Particular Church is formed by selection of the Pastor out of the congregation, with the sanction of the Chancellor. This introduces into full membership in the Academy. This is a change from the procedure heretofore followed; but change is the order of life. We are simply to see that change be progressive toward what should constitute the end of life. By such change the Academy will grow. In London there has been steady growth in intelligent membership by selections thus made by the Pastor there, in co-operation with the Chancellor. Those who have previously been worshipers of the congregation, having had opportunity to learn practically what are the uses of the Academy, and the nature of its teachings and government, when selected for membership in the body are ready for the performance of the duties involved therein. This has been considered the best mode of selection for membership. It places the responsibility of the selection upon those best fitted to judge of individual qualifications.

Rev. L. G. Jordan said that although he had not been in favor of regarding the Academy as a General Church, but rather as a specific Church having special functions, the fact remains that the Academy is now a General Church. There must be in a Church the priestly order of Bishop, Pastor, and Curates. A general must descend into particulars. Where there are a sufficient number gathered together there should be a Pastor. Actual experience in this connection had shown to him the need for a pastoral head. Matters which in their nature required the peculiar ministrations of a Pastor had been brought to him. He had always referred these to the Vice-Chancellor as being in charge in Philadelphia. Public doctrinal instruction should be by one chief teacher. He considered that order requires advance in the direction proposed. It will be a decided gain to the life of the Academy.

Mr. R. M. Glenn remarked upon the state of doubt he had observed in the past among the members of the congregation, as to their real position; it being felt by many that the worship was simply that of the school and for the school, and that the congregation had simply been associated with it. When in need of advice they had been uncertain where to go. When members shall feel that they really belong to the Church in this centre they will feel more in order and stronger.

Rev. E. J. E. Schreck suggested, anent the development of individual Churches within the Academy, that the perfection of the whole depends upon the perfection of its parts.

Rev. Enoch S. Price referred to the condition where a large congregation attends worship without having anything to do with the worship. There is no real live development without reflex, or reaction, on the part of those who receive.

Rev. George G. Starkey suggested that the prevalence, in the Old Church, of various organizations, such as "Christian Endeavor" and "Mite" Societies, might be the outgrowth of an impulse on the part of the laity which rightly directed would be orderly and useful. The organization of the Church in definite form might develop orderly forms of activity and use among the members, forming a plane of active co-operation with the priesthood.

Rev. Homer Synnestvedt said that in the past he had felt the lack of the pastoral relation, dear to his heart. The relation of the pastor and flock is as sacred and interior as any relation except the conjugial. Through that gate the LORD can inflow through priest to man. The pastor must have direct contact with his flock. All seek something of that relation, but it cannot be orderly for some to go to one priest, some to another. The only way to have a flock is to have a pastor, and to have each one recognize him in the office. Each one draws a full breath when all breathe as one, not in detached groups, but as a man in lesser form, including all who come in daily contact. We have had a somewhat heterogeneous mass rather than such a relation. In the school we have gone to the Chancellor or Vice-Chancellor, but in the congregation they have had no one to go to.

The speaker also referred to the presence of the Chancellor as the one to whom those in the school were in the relation of a flock to a shepherd, and he asked if that might not be an interfering element in the pastoral work of the Church.

The Chancellor said this was a proper question, and replied that there would be a definite relation between the pastor and congregation, and that this is what it is proposed to have seen and acknowledged. The relation of the teachers to the Chancellor is another thing, and is not difficult to define. There are two distinct uses, and if the relations are followed out on the basis of those uses, there will be no difficulty, no confusion. There is the plane of instruction and the plane of worship. The use of the school is to instruct and prepare children for the Church. It is the use of the Church to prepare adults for heaven. It will be useful for us to define our thoughts on the subject, and to come into clearer ideas of order, and thus to progress toward higher and more perfect order. The relations of the members of the Church to the school, and of the school to the Church, are mutual and reciprocal. But they need to be defined and understood.

Rev. C. Th. Odhner asked what would be the relations of the members of the Particular Church to the head of the whole body. "As a member of the school," he said, "I have direct access to you as Chancellor. As a member of the Particular Church, would the relation be to you as Chancellor or as Bishop?" The speaker wished to know what would be the orderly procedure in case he wanted to bring something to the Bishop's attention, when he had a pastor to whom he might go instead. He added that he liked the priestly sphere about the term "Bishop."

The Chancellor said that, as to the Church his own relation would be that of Bishop. The Bishop will act through the Pastor, to whom members would have access. The Pastor would consult with the Bishop and the Bishop with the Pastor. The trend is to the individualization of uses and functions. We have all a great deal to learn. There is an individual life and an official life, which must be discriminated. It will be of advantage to all to have relations defined. As an illustration of this discrimination of the scope and nature of functions, we have come to recognize that the sphere of the Head-Master's office requires that he be in the pastoral office, in the sphere of influx of the pastoral relation.

The Chancellor then asked the meeting if it was their desire to have this particular body of the Church formed under the direction of a pastor. This decided, other questions would be met as they arose. It is a principle of the Academy not to hasten or anticipate states.

Mr. C. Hjalmar Asplundh said he was glad we were to have a Church. He asked, first, how we were to obtain a Pastor? And, second, can we support him?

The Chancellor said that the question of support would not arise before we have the relation. We have the law. The Priesthood is to be supported by voluntary offerings, made to the LORD when we come to worship. We will let the consequences remain in the hands of the LORD. He will guide us.

From the expressions of those who responded to this invitation, and from the general sphere of consent, it was evident that the desire for the formation of a particular Church was unanimous. But this unanimity was more fully testified when the members indicated their assent by rising together, the opportunity being given by the Chancellor.

The Chancellor then said, in response to inquiry, that he had in his mind a possible candidate for the pastorate, but wished to hear an expression of preference on the part of the members.

Mr. Glenn said that for himself, and he felt sure a great many others shared in the feeling, he very much desired that Bishop Pendleton might minister to the Church as pastor. This sentiment being very generally and warmly seconded by the members present, accompanied by testification of appreciation of the character and priestly services of the gentleman proposed, the Chancellor gave the meeting to understand that this was the nomination he had in mind. Nevertheless a question had arisen in his mind which he would be obliged to submit to Mr. Pendleton, before placing his name before the Church. The point involved was a question of order—the orderliness of one in the third or episcopal degree officiating in the second degree as pastor of a Church. This point it would be necessary that Bishop Pendleton should consider and determine for himself. He therefore announced that the formation of a Particular Church of the Academy in Philadelphia was now accomplished. An announcement concerning the Pastorate would be made as soon as practicable.

Then, with the benediction, the meeting closed.

AN ANNOUNCENIENT concerning the pastorate of the newly-formed particular Church was made by the Chancellor on March 22d, at a Congregational Supper, Bishop Pendleton having received and accepted the nomination. The new Pastor expressed his recognition of the use, and also of the warm demonstrations made by the congregation. The occasion was reported in New Church Life for April of this year, in the department, "Life of the New Church."


ON May 9th, at 8 P. M., the Academy in Philadelphia met in the Academy Hall of Worship on North Street. About thirty-four members attended. Chancellor Benade opened the meeting with worship, in which he was assisted by Vice-Chancellor Pendleton. After the usual opening, including the singing of "How good are thy tents, O Jacob," the Chancellor made the following address.


THIS hall was opened for Academy worship in October, 1891. The worshiping congregation consisted, at the first, of members of the Academy resident in Philadelphia, and of the students and pupils of the Academy's schools. From the beginning of this movement the Ritual of the Worship took on a new form, which gradually became more perfect under the charge of Bishop Pendleton, the Director of the things of worship in the Academy.

The congregation attending worship in the Hall of the Academy increased in numbers, by degrees, by the addition of others of the New Church, not members of the Academy. The growth of the worshiping congregation, together with other developments of order in the Academy, opened the minds to the conviction that order required the formation of the congregation into the more compact and definite form of a Church, under the lead and government of a Priest, holding the relation and exercising the functions of a Pastor or spiritual Shepherd to a flock placed under his especial charge. This conviction, when matured by reflection, found open expression at a meeting held in this place. This expression was unanimous, as was also the choice, at the same time expressed, in respect to the personality of the Pastor.

Our purpose this evening is to carry into effect the conclusion thus reached.

This congregation will hereafter be a Particular Church of the General Church of the Academy, the second that has come into existence since the formation of that body. And upon you, my Brother Pendleton, has fallen the choice of serving the LORD in the office of Teacher, Leader, and Governor of this Particular Church of the Academy of the New Church.

You have declared your williness to accept this charge. Take it, then, in the holy name of our LORD and SAVIOUR JESUS CHRIST, and, receiving power from on high, lead this Church to the performance of the heavenly uses for which our LORD has instituted and continually preserved in existence a Church on Earth.

And you, members of this congregation, who have so freely entered into this movement, receive as at the hands of the LORD the Pastor of your choice; let your affections go out to his ministrations; hold your minds open to the teachings of the LORD through him, and keep your wills ready to do His Will, as He gives you to see it. May every good come to you, to your Pastor, and to this Church, from the LORD of all Mercies, and may true spiritual prosperity wait upon your ways. "The LORD answer thee in the day of distress; the name of the God of Jacob exalt thee; send thee help out of the sanctuary, and out of Zion sustain thee; remember all thine offerings, and thy holocausts make fat; Selah. Grant thee according to thy heart, and all thy counsel infill."—AMEN.

Vice-Chancellor Pendleton responded with a brief inaugural address, in which he referred to his function of the charge of worship in the Academy, but said that he felt glad to accept this additional and particular field, that of Pastoral work—glad in part because it provided a field for development and experimental use. The Church is in the experimental stage as to forms of doing Church uses. We know but little, and must learn by growth and experience, as light is given to us day by day. We have an unmeasured store of riches given to us in the Writings, but to utilize these we need to learn how to apply them.

It is indispensable for the growth of the New Church that it have its own proper forms of worship. There is great need for a new worship, but the production and development of this was impossible so long as we continued in connection with Convention, and with the forms derived from the Old Church. Bishop Pendleton said that he became more and more convinced that the forms of worship for the Church are not to be fixed and rigid forms, but plastic, and adaptable to the varied requirements of worship, according to occasion. Those requirements are to be discovered experimentally and step by step. The prospect of such work was one reason for his gladness in accepting this field.

He spoke further of a prospective increase of the membership of the Academy in Philadelphia. It was proposed to select new members out of the congregation that has been worshiping here, and this would shortly be effected.

He spoke also of the movement to the country which has already involved several families, and which would increase. This divides our forces, and makes it desirable to have worship provided for those out-of-town, since for them attendance upon the worship in town is difficult and often impracticable. Worship would be provided so soon as circumstances permitted, the principal need being that of a place in which to meet. The social life of the Church would continue to receive attention.


JUNE Nineteenth was this year celebrated by the Academy in Philadelphia, by a dinner at Huntingdon Valley, spread, in picnic style, in a large new barn, of Mr. John Pitcairn. About forty-five members were present, besides several young visitors, most of whom were of Academy families.

The occasion was entirely informal, without set programme, and seemed marked by a pleasant sphere of relaxation, although it is not improbable that the spontaneity at such gatherings will increase in proportion as the members recognize the design in the absence of formality, and so know just what to expect and how to enjoy it. Speech-making—of a wholly impromptu kind—was initiated by Vice-Chancellor Pendleton's calling on Dr. G. R. Starkey to respond to the toast, "The Babies," which he did in characteristic style. He retaliated by calling on "Father" Pendleton to respond to "The Day we celebrate." Bishop Pendleton, remarking on the "unexpected" nature of the call, produced a manuscript in witness to his lack of preparation. He then spoke seriously, and, connecting the establishment of the New Church with the life and worship of the Academy; which is one form of the New Church, he addressed himself particularly to the subject of "Hymns." These, he thought, have their place in worship. It is not necessary to confine ourselves, in sacred singing, to the Letter of the Word alone. In ancient times they had hymns in glorification of the LORD. This is the special province and topic for hymns. Pursuing his convictions of the need for development in this direction, he had been interviewing some of those among our congregation who in the past have given evidence of poetic talent; and in evidence of results he read from his manuscript three poems, the names of the authors being withheld for the present, to secure greater freedom of criticism. In connection with the last one, which is in blank verse, Mr. Whittington was quoted as saying that there is no reason why blank verse should not be set to music. The themes of the poems were the following, taken from the doctrine of the Internal Sense: 1. When the LORD comes those who are out of the Church will draw near and confess Him from joy of heart. 2. In temptations, when man despairs, the LORD brings help and consolation. 3. The Consummation of the Church. The words are withheld from present publication, for the sake of revision.

Bishop Pendleton added that if these specimens should be regarded favorably the work of preparing material for a new hymnology can go on.

Mr. Jordan here said that he had just found on the table a bit of paper (an old letter), on the back of which was written a verse which the author was too modest to read. The verse was as follows:

On this day of all days let us meet Thee, O LORD,
Asking fullness of strength for another year's life;
That we better may do what Thy mercies afford,
Our share of Thy works, our share of Thy strife.

Mr. Jordan then handed the letter to the care of Dr. Cranch, with the ingenuous explanation that as the letter was that gentleman's property the custody of it properly belonged to him.

Mr. Synnestvedt spoke of the need for second reading and favorable conditions, in order to appreciate such poetic efforts as those that had been read. He told how the author of our valued "Color Song" had read it to him just at its completion. Politeness had constrained him to say, "That's pretty nice!" The next evening, heard in a more exalted sphere, it had struck him as one of the finest things he had ever heard. He thought the hymns we now have not so acceptable for sacred singing as the Letter of the Word, but that when hymns shall originate from an Academy spirit there would be a difference in that respect.

Bishop Pendleton called upon the author of "The Red and White" for remarks on the subject of hymns.

Mr. Jordan responded, saying that he felt there had been a great advance in going from the old hymns to the Letter of the Word, in our singing, but recognized that there are some states so universal in their nature, so complete in themselves, and so easily shared, that it is easy to stimulate and satisfy them by a less full and correspondential ultimate than the Letter of the Word—that is, by the use of hymns. These should be expressions not merely of vague, general emotion, but permeated by doctrine, and should instruct, yet should not be didactic. There should be preparation on the subject of the hymn by study of all the doctrine pertaining to the subject at the writer's command, and this should be present in the writer's mind even though it be unconsciously. If it is in the mind it will affect the form of the flow of inspiration by its sphere. Hymns need not be the work of ordained teachers; but others going forth from the presence of Doctrine, warm with heart to promulgate the teaching received, will be prepared to give forth in verse. Women writers will not be altogether sure of doctrinal points, but being in the sphere of the Church those things will be present with them and guide, and in the resulting productions there will be a general correspondential correctness. It is exceedingly desirable that young people who have a faculty for versification should be encouraged and prepared for ultimate application of it to uses of the Church. Instead of wasting their efforts in love-sick sentimentality they should have this higher ideal set before them for future usefulness, their elders leading the way. The speaker believed we have such talent among us in no mean degree, and that its development would result in productions suited to various requirements of state and occasion. Two external conditions are requisite for the writing of successful hymns: They must be melodic, appealing to the affections, and easily caught by the ear; and they must be not too long—easily memorized. With that large number of our people who are prevented from singing the New Music by its difficulty, hymns will have an especial use.

Mr. Schreck here read a telegram which he referred to as a "poem," the Chancellor sanctioning the diversion on the ground that it was "right in the line of the subject of 'hims.'" The telegram read: "This morning. Boy. Both doing well. William H. Acton." The Vice-Chancellor remarked that that was a "poem incorporated."

Mr. Price (Professor of Language in the Schools) said he had one word to say in regard to the use of things in verse: the fact that verse exists, and has been brought to a high state of perfection, is an indication that it should be made to serve the Church, for the sake of which everything good exists. As to singing the Word, the renderings we now have, and which have been set to music, are at the best approximations to the Word. The Word itself exists only in the original tongues, and will forever remain there. He therefore thought that merely human expression of the truths contained in the Word is not at all inadmissible in worship, since even in the Word, as it is available to the Church in general, human elements are present in the imperfections and limitations of translation. It has been said that the poets of the past have a great deal worth saying, but not the best manner of saying it: but that the poets of the present have a nearly faultless manner of saying what they have to say, but not much that is worth the saying. It is an age of technical perfection. The form is now here for the use of the Church: it remains for the Church to supply the internal. Much of the New Music the speaker confessed he could not understand, and therefore he had missed the hymns: he would like to have something easy both in words and music. Much of the music for the Psalms is very hard, even after considerable pains have been taken in the way of practice, but the "Red and White" is easy: why not have more like it?

Chancellor Benade remarked that poetry, like music, is the expression of the affection of truth. Those who are in the sphere of that are in the love of the LORD—they have the LORD. We shall have poetry when the interior affection of truth is established. We are slowly groping toward it and eventually will reach the state.

Rev. J. E. Rosenqvist, of Berlin, expressed much interest in the subject, and professed a desire to see New Church hymns written by Newchurchmen used in the Church. But he wanted to know whether hymns should not be written by the clergy exclusively, since they are in illustration in the things of worship. Doctrine comes from the LORD through the clergy. Books of poetry, however, could be written by the laity.

Mr. Schreck suggested that this led us back to the underlying question, What are hymns? Are they a form of instruction? Or are they an expression of the feeling of the worshipers? If the latter then the worshipers may surely contribute to the expression of the affection excited in them by the instruction of the clergy. When hearts are profoundly stirred by the Truth, with the beginnings of new life the feelings naturally find vent in melody.

Mr. G. G. Starkey said that he thought it not impossible that when the Church should have advanced so far that influx into the external would be more nearly spontaneous, we might have even impromptu composition in services, the congregation breaking spontaneously into song expressive of the then prevailing affection. He was at least decidedly of the opinion that the form of the reciprocation by the congregation could very properly arise from them to the extent of contributing the words of hymns.

Dr. Cranch referred to the teaching of the Lesser Diary (n. 4805), that glorification is not a use but a recreation. He saw no reason why it might not sometimes be spontaneous.

Mr. Jordan cited the case of the virgins who sing in the early morning in Heaven, whose singing as it were inspires itself from within. To a question, the speaker replied that this was a part of worship; the day opens with it there. There is variety according to the variety of affections.

Chancellor Benade added that the affections then sung are of the most interior kind, as belongs to that, the most interior part of the day.

Mr. Acton remarked that the part in worship that pertains to the priest is that in which he will have illustration, viz., in what is necessary to his use. To his office belongs an interior affection of truth, which will be the source of his illustration. In writing a sermon, address, or prayer, he will have illustration; this belongs only to priests. But writing a hymn is not distinctively of the priestly use. At a suggestion that a practical illustration be made, the "Color Song," as being the composition of a Newchurchman, was here sung by the assembly, the old music being used, as it is preferred by some. This was followed by the old favorite, "When the Mists are Cleared Away."

Rev. J. F. Potts prefaced an expression of his views with the remark that he had been absorbed with admiration of the men who had revealed to him the unsuspected possibilities of perseverance in the American character, by getting up and speaking, one after the other, in defiance of the oppressive sample of the American climate they were experiencing that day. It might have been expected of the Scotch, but he was now convinced that the Americans were not behind the Scotch in dogged perseverance.

He approved of using hymns, and referred to what is said in the Diary about singing hymns. (See in the Concordance under "Hymns.") He said that the most successful hymns are those addressed directly to the LORD. Not about the LORD, nor about our states, but to the LORD, in prayer and praise. The speaker did not want to see the beautiful Psalms, so admirably sung by our congregation, superseded; but the music is so difficult for some that all their attention is taken up in thinking of the notes, so that they do not really sing the Word, but notes. Hymns have their place; but he would like to ask, Why throw overboard the good old hymns of the New Church? They come down from a period of the Church very different from the present state of Conference and Convention, with their absence of everything distinctively New Church. The speaker referred to Mr. Proud's hymns, among the others, which he thought could not be equalled for power. He quoted from the first hymn in the Conference Hymn Book, expressing acknowledgement of the Divine Human. There are many more in the book, on the same subject.

Chancellor Benade called to mind an instance of the power of hymns. Twenty years ago he had a friend in the Boston Society, who was very deaf. A change was made in the Boston ritual excluding all forms of singing not based on the Letter of the Word. This had deprived him of the only part of the worship which he could hear, and he had gone elsewhere where he could have hymns. He had given up them (the Boston Society) because they had given up "hymn.” They had been under the somewhat fanatical idea that it is wrong to use anything but the Letter of the Word in worship. "From the Word" means from the spirit of the Word, and the spirit of the Word can be variously expressed.

The Chancellor then referred to the meeting of the Academy held last January, the 16th, to effect a change in our organization, by separating completely the Church of the Academy from the Corporation of the body. To effect this members had been asked to resign their supposed corporate rights in the Academy under its charter, while retaining their membership in the Church as before.

Here, at the Chancellor's request, Mr. Glenn, the Secretary of the Board of Finance, announced that the resignations of all the members of the Academy, except four, were now in the Chancellor's hands, and those four were presumably in sympathy with this movement. [Three resignations of the four have since been received.]

The Chancellor then announced that he had nominated Messrs. Pitcairn, Glenn, Hicks, Asplundh, Burnham, and Macbeth to constitute the corporation. The point being raised by some present that to nominate members to constitute the corporation might be so construed as to prejudice the legal status of the body, it was brought out that the word "nominat " had been used by the Chancellor not in a technical sense, but simply to indicate those who would be requested to remain in and constitute the corporation; thus the announcement was merely an informal one for the information of the members present, as to the progress which had been made toward a satisfactory adjustment of the civil relations and duties of the Academy. It was also explained that formal and binding action would be taken later.

The afternoon was concluded with the same informality that had characterized the day throughout, most of those present returning to town by an early evening train.


MEETINGS for reading College Letter XVI were held May 21st, June 4th, and July 11th, 1895=125, at the houses of members. All expressed themselves affirmatively toward the doctrine that the High Priest must be subordinate to the LORD alone. After the reading, the remainder of the evening was in each case spent in social intercourse, various sentiments being proposed and responded to.

Geo.G. Starkey

Go to: Index of College Letters